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Full text of "Old and modern masters in the collection of M.C.D. Borden"

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NOTICE 

IN PRESENTING HEREWITH A COPY OF THE PRIVATELY PRINTED 
DE LUXE CATALOGUE OF THE LATE 



M. C. D. BORDEN'S 

PRIVATE GALLERY 

OF 

NOTABLE PAINTINGS 



BY THE GREAT MASTERS 

OF THE 

EARLY DUTCH, FLEMISH, ITALIAN, ENGLISH, BARBIZON, CONTEMPORANEOUS 
FRENCH, GERMAN, AND AMERICAN SCHOOLS 

THE AMERICAN ART ASSOCIATION 

TAKES THE OPPORTUNITY OF ANNOUNCING THAT IT HAS BEEN INSTRUCTED BY JOHN W. STERLING, 

BERTRAM H. BORDEN, AND HOWARD S. BORDEN, EXECUTORS, 

TO DISPOSE OF THE SAME 

AT UNRESTRICTED PUBLIC SALE 

TOGETHER WITH 



An Exceedingly Choice Collection 



OF BEAUTIFUL 



OLD CHINESE PORCELAINS 

IMPERIAL JADES, CARVED AGATES, CLOISONNE ENAMELS, ANTIQUE GLASS 
GREEK TERRA COTTAS, ANTIQUE JEWELRY, ANCIENT GREEK 
COINS, MINIATURES, CABINET GEMS AND 
OTHER ART PROPERTY 

AND ALSO 

THE VERY VALUABLE LIBRARY 

WHICH IT IS SAFE TO SAY THAT NO SUCH COLLECTION OF BEAUTIFUL 

MODERN BINDINGS, EDITIONS- DE- LUXE, ILLUSTRATED ART 

WORKS AND EXTRA-ILLUSTRATED BOOKS HAS EVER 

BEEN OFFERED FOR SALE IN THIS COUNTRY 

"CHE WHOLE FORMING A HIGHLY IMPORTANT 

QATHERING OF JRT AND LITERARY "PROPERTY OF HIGH 

QUALITY AND DISTINCTIVE CHARACTETi 

THIS IMPORTANT PUBLIC SALE 

WILL TAKE PLACE DURING FEBRUARY, 1913 

DEFINITE DATES FOR THE PUBLIC EXHIBITION AND THE SALE WILL BE MADE 
KNOWN IN FUTURE ANNOUNCEMENTS 



APPLICATIONS FOR CATALOGUES (REGULAR SALES EDITION) AND INQUIRIES 
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO 



THE AMERICAN ART ASSOCIATION 

AMERICAN ART GALLERIES 

MADISON SQUARE SOUTH 
NEW YORK, NOVEMBER. 1912 NEW YORK, U.S.A. 



OLD AND 
MODERN MASTERS 

IN THE COLLECTION 

OF 

MC-D BORDEN 



CATALOGUED BY 

WILHELM RVALENTINER 
&- AUGUST F • JACCACl 

VOLUME ONE 




NEAV YORK 
PRIVATELY PRINTED 
MCMXI 



CopyrigKt, 191 1, by- 
Frederic FaircKild SKerman 



CONTENTS 

VOLUME I 

Paintings by Old MAsTERs,WilKeltnR. Valentincr ... 9 
Early Dutch, Flemish and Italian Masters 
Cuyp, Aelbert . . . Man Eating Mussels ... .26 

De HoocK, Pieter . . The Music Party 37 

Guardi, Francesco . . The Piazza of San Marco, Venice 74 

The Grand Canal near tKe Piazza 

San Marco, Venice .... 79 

Hals, Frans .... The Reverend Caspar Sibelius . 31 

Hobbema, Meindert . . Ca^le Ko^verloren . . . . 32 
Teniers, David (TKe 

Younger) .... Woman Smoking in an Inn . . 73 

TerborcK, Gerard . . Lady Pouring Wine . . . . 55 

Van deVelde,W^illem . Calm Sea 56 

Van Dyck, Anton . . Portrait of a Gentleman ... 68 
Van O^ade, Isack . . Peasants before an Inn . . .43 

Van O^ade, Adriaen , Backgammon Players at an Inn . 3 8 

Van Rijn, Rembrandt . Lucretia Stabbing Herself . . 44 

Van Ruisdael, Jacob . Tbe Cascade 49 

AW^aterfall 50 

Wouwerman, Philips . Grooms Watering Horses . . 61 

The Sutler's Booth . . . . 62 
V/ynants, Jan . . . Hilly Landscape ^vith Grove o£ 

Trees 67 

Paintings of the English Masters, August F. Jaccaci . . 83 

English Masters 

Chrome, John . . . The Willo"w 118 

Con^able, John . . . The Sluice 117 

Gainsborough, Thomas . Miss Ann Horde 99 

Hoppner, John . . . Mrs. Arbuthnot 112 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas . Miss Kent 100 

Millais, Sir John Everett The Pet Bird 135 

Morland, George . . Ru^ic Scene 129 

3 



English Masters— Continued 



Nasmytk, Patrick 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua 
Romney, George 



Tadema, Sir Alma 
Turner, J. M. W. 



. Edinburgh from Gogar 

. Miss Morris 

. The V/illett Children . . 

Countess of Glencairn (?) . 

Lady Hamilton as Madonna 
. Unwelcome Confidence . 
. The ChfFs at Dover 

East Cowes Ca^le, the Seat of J 
Nash, Esq.— The Regatta Bear? 
ing to Windward .... 

VOLUME II 



Paintings of the Modern French, Dutch, German and 
American Masters, August F. Jaccaci . . . , 
Modern French Masters 



I 30 

94 
105 

106 

III 

136 

123 



124 



Bonheur, Rosa 

Breton, J. Adolphe 
Corot, J. B. Camille 



Daubigny, C. Francois 

Daumier, Honore 
Decamps, A. Gabriel 
Delacroix, Eugene 
De Neuville, Alphonse 
Detaille, Edouard 

Diar, Narcisse Virgile 

Dupre, Jules . 



Highland Cattle and Sheep on a 

Mountain Pa^ure 
La Fin de la Recolte 
Bohemienne a la Fontaine 
Le Pont de Mantes 
Le Bateau au Clair de Lune 
La Cueillette au Bord du Chemin 

Mantes*lasJohe 

The Willows 

The Banks of the Oise. Summer 
Le V/agon de Troisieme Classe 
Les Petits Nautonniers . . . 
Combat en Algerie 
Prisonniers de Guerre . 
Prussian Cuirassiers Attacking a 

French Convoy .... 
La Diseuse de Bonne Aventure 
Sunset near Fontainebleau 
Pa^urage near L'Isle*Adam . 

4 



112 

52 
57 
58 

^3 
88 

93 
94 
46 

45 
40 

130 

129 

99 
100 

76 



Modern French Masters — Continued 



Dupre, Jules 



Fromentin, Eugene . 

Gericault, TKeodore 

Gerome, J. L. . . . Bonaparte en Egypte 

Greuze, J. Baptiste 

Henner, J, Jacques . 

Meissonier, J. L. Erne^ 

Monticelli, AdolpKe 

Millet, Jean Francois 
Rousseau, Theodore 



Troyon, Con^ant 
Vibert, J. Georges 

Modern Dutch Masters 

Mauve, Anton . 
NeuKuys, Albert 

Modern German Masters 

Defregger, Franz 
DiefFenbacK, H. A. 
Knaus, Ludwig . 
Litscbauer, Joseph 
Siegert, Augu^ . 

Modern American Masters 



Landscape 8i 

Landscape 82 

Landscape Sj 

A la Fontaine 117 

Tbe Wbite Horse 3 (^ 

. 124 

Innocence 34 

Magdalen 123 

A Cavalier 118 

Court d Amour 105 

Romantic Scene 106 

Le Gardeur de Moutons . 

Tbe Pool 

Landscape 

Sunset 

Tbe Pool in tbe Fore^ . 
Tbe Approaching Storm . 
A Theological Quarrel 



III 
64 
69 
70 

75 

51 
136 



Winter Landscape 
Mother and Children 



The Adventure 
Girl and Child . 
A Bavarian Holiday . 
The Counterfeiters 
Tbe Old Grandmother 



142 
147 

164 

163 
152 

157 



Inness, George 

McEntee, Jervis . 
Wbittredge, Wortbington 
Wyant, Alexander . 



181 
182 



Sunset 

Sunset (Montclair) 

Autumn Landscape with Figures 176 

Scene in a Park 175 

Tbe Approaching Storm , . .170 

5 



VOLUME I 
PAINTINGS BY OLD MASTERS 




PAINTINGS BY OLD MASTERS 

By \Vilhelm R. Valentiner 

DUTCH SCHOOL 

[HE principal pidtures of the old makers in Mr. 
Borden's collection are works by recognized mas* 
ters of tKe be^ period of tke DutcK School, the 
second third of the seventeenth century. The 
various manners of expression of Dutch painting 
are excellently represented, the portrait, genre, 
landscape and seascape; even suhjedls of classical 
antiquity, which are hut seldom and with Httle success cultivated 
in Holland, are represented by a maimer piece of Rembrandt's, the 
dying Lucretia. 

V/e shall begin with Frans Hals and Rembrandt, the great men 
who dominate the school by their ^rong personaKties, and force into 
the two distindl channels they individually followed all its lesser 
makers. Although Frans Hals lived to see the fruits o£ peace begin to 
ripen in his later years, he represents the people who Hved in a ^ate 
of war, the long war in \vhich Holland and the whole of Europe 
were engaged in at the time. Rembrandt, ^vho belongs to a little 
younger generation, is the representative of the same community in 
a ^ate of peace, and his i^yle fliU of feeHng and thought was devel? 
oped under the stimulus of the hard and rough experiences of the 
preceding period. Yet Frans Hals' arti^ic activities extended almo^ 
to the death of Rembrandt; his reaH^ic conception depending upon 
momentary expression, and that of Rembrandt, quiet, soulful and 
absorbed, are therefore contemporaneous. ^Ve may safely say that 
one was evolved from the other, and also, that the manner of Rem^ 
brandt dominated Dutch art after the fifties. 

These two absolutely different conceptions are very well illus* 
trated by tv/o works in the possession o£ Mr. Borden ; Hals' portrait 

9 



of the ''Reverend Caspar SibeKus," dated 1637, and the ''Lucretia" of 
Rembrandt, painted in 1664. The Hals is one of the works in which, 
concentrating his broad, free art ^vithin the Hmits of a small canvas, 
the arti^ accomplishes all the more a^onishing results. As soon as it 
was completed, this painting -was tsvice engraved by J. Suydenhoef, 
one of the be^ Dutch engravers of the time, and has become especially 
well known for that reason. Since several pidlures by Frains Hals, 
and of similar size, are available in engravings of the time, it is logical 
to assume that the arti^ chose a small canvas, to which he v/as unacs 
customed, out of consideration for the engraver. The work belongs 
to the be^ period of his career, when w^ith his pecuHar vivacious* 
ness he combined a comparatively painstaking and finely ^udied 
technique; when in^ead of the rugged figures of his earlier period 
he pidtured jovial contentment, and supplanted by a transparent 
gray tone, his early garish color schemes. It -svas, furthermore, in the 
latter half of the thirties, the time when this portrait "was painted, 
that Frans Hals painted some of his be^ works: the ''Portrait of a 
Painter" and the ''Portrait of an Old Woman" from the Yerkes 
Colledlion, both of 1635, and both now in the Prick Colledlion, the 
portrait of Michielde V/ael(i638) in the possession of Mr. Morgan, 
and the two companion pidlures of the same year, in Frankfort. It is 
rare that we should know the personaKty of Hals' sitters, as in this 
case of Sibehus, ^vho ^vas born in Germany and enjoyed a reputation 
as a preacher in England, Switzerland, and finally also in Holland. 
If the inscription on the back of the canvas is corredt, we also know 
the name of its fir^ owner, a certain Professor Hoffmann, to whom 
it is said to have been presented by SibeHus himself. 

We may wonder how it came about that an arti^ like Frans 
Hals, vv^hom we pidlure mentally as a manner of Fal^aff, should be 
particularly successful in portraying minivers of the Gospel; yet he 
painted many of them. It is clear that an under^anding of naive 
piety such as ^vas imparted by gentle preachers, ^vas not incompat? 
ible with the rough belligerent natures of that time. In fact, war 
itself aided in furthering the influence of the prices, for a nation 
whose chief pre^occupation is the defense of its territory is more apt 
to give the church its rights than a people Hving in peace and having 

10 



time for refledtion and therefore for scepticism. TKese Dutch mins 
i^ers also seem to have fo^ered a simple conception of life quite in 
accordance with the pradtical problems so close at hand, and by- 
means of a jovial cordiality to have brought themselves close to their 
flock. Sibelius is not portrayed as a complex nature ; on the contrary, 
his friendly bearing, the clear, intelligent look in his small eyes, the 
encouraging, eloquent position of his hands does not reveal a man of 
philosophical and speculative mind with thoughts running in deep 
channels, but one of simple nature who under^ands his immediate 
task of heartening and comforting. The arti^ himself was the same 
sort of man as his sitter. 

Frans Hals' art depicts in^antaneous impressions, and it is for this 
reason that his figures seem so diredl and lifelike to us. But one arti:^ 
above all others, Rembrandt, underwood the combination of reality 
with dehcately shaded psychic expression. His picture in the Bor? 
den Colledtion is a ^riking example of this combination. It belongs 
to the arti^'s later period and is one of the mo^ magnificent and 
effective of its -svorks. Toward the close of his career the arti^ con? 
fined himself to painting figures, somewhat ^atuesque in character, 
whose dra^ic ge^ures are similar to those used in operatic adling ; 
the whole field of expression being transferred to the depidling of 
the inner Hfe, and the rendering of the atmosphere in which his figs 
ures are placed. Such, surely, is the case ^vith Lucretia. Her pose 
seems borro\ved from the theatre ; she ^ands as though in the centre 
of the ^age, with both hands equally raised. This subjedl of Lucretia 
in the adl of self destrudlion -was not a new one, and it is quite pos? 
sible that the arti^ knew some of the pictures by the great Venetian 
arti^s, Titian and Palma Vecchio, ^vhere the dying Lucretia is repre? 
sented at half length. In the figure of the Northern ma^er, ^ve do 
not readily note anything unusual. Primarily we recognize a well? 
knov/n model often used by him in his later years, and that she 
wears a co^ume and jewelry -we know to have belonged to him. The 
picture therefore has a portrait^like character. In fact, the whole 
of Rembrandt's work is portraiture. But despite this simple, almo^ 
crude composition, there is something in the picture which makes it 
one of the wonderful creations of the great arti;^. Considering fir^ 

II 



tKe tecKnique and color, one sees tKe figure looming tKrougK a flood 
of golden tones laid in broad masses and glittering in the jewelry; 
and the pale face appears as seemingly blurred by a diaphanous veil 
of sunny mi^. At every point one is made aware of tbe ma^er band 
schooled in hundreds of pid:ures^vhichare great achievements; the 
broad ^rokes, accurately subservient to the will, clearly indicate that 
disdain for the vehicle \vhich only the greater men can sho^v, and 
only in their be^ ^vorks, and then unconsciously. But all this ex? 
ternal splendor is surpassed by the intensity of psychic expression. 
Who can resist the appeal of this pitiful face, so despondent in its 
mental anguish; or the sugge^ion of hfe seemingly ebbing from the 
body even before the dagger has touched the brea:^; or again, the 
effed: of this mo^ touching silhouette of the slightly incKned head, 
and the hand outi^retched in a ge^ure -which speaks of fear and 
resignation? Quite unique in art is this combination of a broad decs 
orative effed: w^ith this extraordinary expression of di^ind: feeKngs, 
seemingly too subtle for expression v/ith the brush; the combina? 
tion, furthermore, of the real and convincing human appeal of the 
portrait with the di^ant fantasy of an Oriental fairy tale. It is per^ 
haps because of the concentration of the v/hole ad:ion in a single 
figure, that ju^ as thoughts flow mo^ freely in a monologue, the 
arti^ has succeeded so ^rikingly in his presentation. 

Apart firom Hals and Rembrandt, the remaining makers of the 
Dutch School can be grouped according to their resped:ive fields. At 
the same time it is obvious that pradiically all are under the influence 
of the two great makers, and that many of them have developed 
from the manner of Frans Hals into that o£ Rembrandt. This is 
notably the case with the genre painters, who are represented by 
four pid;ures — one by Terborch, one by each of the Ostades, and one 
by Cuyp. Of all but the la^ of these it may be said that they came 
from the school of Frans Hals and were later influenced by Rem? 
brandt. 

Terborch is the be^ representative painter of genre subjed:s de^ 
pid:ing the Hfe and manners of the upper classes in Holland; and his 
own hfe illu^rates the rise of the professional artist to a higher social 
position. Terborch was born in 1617 and is ten years Rembrandt's 

12 



junior. Tv/o generations of important makers Kad preceded Kim, Kis 
father was himself an indu^rious painter holding an official position 
in his home to'wn, Zwolle ; therefore in the choice of a profession he 
had no such parental difficulties to overcome as had Rembrandt. He 
could afford to travel, fir^ in Holland, then in England and prac* 
tically on the ^vhole Continent, and had every opportunity for the 
cultivation of his art. As early as in the forties he became the painter 
o£ the higher poHtical circles of the time; in 1648 he painted the 
assembled delegates to the Congress of Miin^er at the close of the 
Thirty Years' War; later he was called to Madrid by the Spanish 
Minister Peneranda and is there said to have painted a likeness of 
Phihp IV. \Vhen, after traveUng in Italy and England, he returned 
home, settling down and getting married in Deventer, he was over? 
^vhelmed with honors cind received firom di^inguished citizens and 
i^atesmen enough commissions to keep him busy for the re^ of his 
days. That the arti^ was a man of the world and of good breeding 
may be gathered from his portrait in Spanish costume by his own 
hand ^vhich is no\v in the Gallery at The Hague. In the development 
of his art we note the growing social pre^ige v/hich he enjoyed. 
The mihtary pieces betraying the influence of Frans Hals belong to 
his early years ; in his middle period, the late forties, he painted the 
charming genre subjedls, full of a sedate and weU^bred bourgeois 
atmosphere, which depidl his own dome^ic environment ; and in the 
work painted in the fifties appear satin robes and cavaKers in scenes 
of the hfe of the beau monde. The feeling for elegance, v/hich pre^ 
supposes a broad knowledge of the v/orld, manifei^s itself in his easy 
fluent technique, and in the influences which sv/ayed him. Ju^ as he 
follows Frans Hals in his earHer period, so later he is influenced by 
the Dutch painters of the bourgeoisie, and v/hat is more, his versa^s 
tile art shows also the influence of the great foreign arti^s — Titian, 
Velazquez- and Van Dyck. 

The pidlure in the Borden Colledlion is of the middle period and 
is quite after the manner of Metsu, who, being the younger, mu^ 
have been the borrower. Furthermore, the strong vermilion in the 
co^ume of the young woraan — a color rarely found in Terborch — as 
well as the chiaroscuro, shows that this pidlure originated at a time 

13 



^vllcn DutcK arti^s worsKipped at tke sKrinc of Rembrandt. Wliile 
the ^vomen in the group belong to the simple bourgeois class, the ele? 
gantly dressed cavaKer evidences that tendency of the arti^ which 
was soon to help him get out of this environment into the ari^ocratic 
world. 

Aelbert Cuyp, who is represented in an unusual way by a genre 
picture, enjoyed like Terborch the respedl of his community. He 
filled important and honorable positions in his native town of Dord^ 
recht and was the owner of a small ei^ate outside the city. Unlike 
Terborch, he felt no desire to travel, biit remained always in the quiet 
miheu whence he came, and only the -warm southern Hght which 
appears in his landscapes indicates an appreciation of other climes. 
The ''Mussel Eater" also gives afaithfiil pidture of the surroundings 
of the arti^. V/e look into a smithy in which the owner sits upon the 
anvil. Before him is a bowl fiill of mussels, one of which he is eating 
while two children inter e^edly follow his motions. The somewhat 
^iff attitudes leave no doubt that the three are portraits, and that this 
pidlure is a group of portraits arranged as a genre scene, as is fiirther 
demon^rated by the two men looking in at the window to the right 
who are also treated in a decidedly portrait^like fashion. It maybe 
that the older man is the pater familias and the other his sons. At 
any rate, this pidlure is a reprodudlion — either executed by the artii^ 
or done by a pupil — of a larger one in the museum at Rotterdam, 
firom ^vhich it differs in several details. The somewhat unnatural 
position of the hand of the older man in Mr. Borden's example is 
explained by the Rotterdam pidture in w^hich he holds a glass of 
wine; the girl in the latter holds an apple in^ead of a pipe, and the 
child's head just visible behind the barrel, as well as the cat in the 
foreground, have been entirely omitted in the present canvas. Also 
the complete signature, A. Cuyp fecit, is replaced in our pidture by 
the monogram A.C. 

In Pieter de Hooch's ''Music Party" we have a typical example 
of the genre pidture of ari^ocratic subjedts, the third phase of Dutch 
genre art, when it came under French influence and began to lose 
its national character. Pieter de Hooch ^vas not an arti^ of social 
landing like Terborch or Cuyp ; he Hved in extremely poor circums 

14 



dances, Kaving Parted in life by being a servant in a noble bouse? 
bold. But togetber witb tbe two makers we bave ju^ mentioned, 
as well as witb all tbe arti^s wbo Hved until about 1680, be ^vas 
affected by foreign influences. His arti^ic development is of a kind 
witb Terborcb's. Like bim, be began witb miUtary pieces, tben in 
bis middle and be^ period be painted bourgeois genre pidlures, and 
in bis later period be depidled scenes of tbe life of tbe bigber and more 
elegant society. But in bis la^ period is also to be noted a decrease in 
arti^ic feeling, greater in bis case, and perbaps tbe result of discourage? 
ment at bis lack of success. Tbe pidlure in tbe Borden Colledlion is 
one of tbe best in bis la^ manner. Wbile tbe dra^ving of tbe figure is 
beavy and tbe wbole arrangement somewbat ^iff, tbe pidture never? 
tbeless bas excellent qualities. Several of tbe faces, not de Hoocb's 
i^rong point by any means, are especially attractive and tbe garments 
are painted witb a fine feeling for texture and a good sense of color. 
Tbe influence of Frencb academic art manife^s itself in tbe empbasis 
laid upon borizontal and vertical lines, by means of wbicb tbe figures 
at tbe table are practically enclosed in a square. Tbe gairden, wbicb 
is also in tbe Frencb style, and arranged and pruned in rectilinear 
fasbion, contains a ^rudlure in tbe classic ^yle patterned after tbe 
Am^erdam City Hall. 

Tbe be^ representative painters of genre subjects of tbe lower 
classes, Jan Steen alone excepted, are tbe two O^ades, eacb of v/bom 
is represented in tbe Borden Colledlion: Adriaen by an interior witb 
gaming peasants, Isack by an inn ^able. Tbe older O^ade employed 
bis great and long admired art in tbe presentation of tbe cbiaroscuro 
of picturesque peasant interiors witbin v/bicb tbe gaudy co^umes 
of ^outisb inmates compose subdued barmonies; wbile tbe younger 
brotber preferred to reproduce tbe cbiaroscuro of outdoor scenes 
in tbe late afternoon under tbe sbady trees and bovvers sbeltering 
peasant cottages. Isack ^ands in tbe same relation to Adriaen O^ade 
as does Hobbema to Ruisdael. Isack is tbe pupil and tbe more temper? 
amental of tbe tv^o; like Hobbema, be acbieves in bis be^ works 
more fascinating effedts tban tbe older ma^er; but, on tbe otber 
band, be is less balanced, and seldom succeeds in doing bis be^ unless 
wben guided by youtbful impulse. Like bim also, be is monotonous 

15 



in Kis composition as ^vell as less original, but broader in Kis execution 
and in his ligkt and color efFedts. The composition of the charming 
pidlure in the Borden Collection is, like that of the majority of his 
pictures, reminiscent of an older ^lyle, that of older landscapi^s — 
Van Goyen and Pieter Molyn. It is planned diagonally, the perspec* 
tive deepening toward the right from a corner in the foreground; 
and conditioned by this, the Kght is disposed in such manner that 
each bright portion of the pidture alternates ^th a dark one, so that 
by this means the depth of space is more definitely rendered. Also 
in general color tone and in technique Isack approaches preceding 
^vorks more closely than his older brother, as was natural, since he 
was young (he died at thirty^seven). In the peasant types he imitates 
his brother ; but in the golden color scheme, in which a few ^svarm 
greenishsblue and yellow^ish^red tones are prominent, he follows 
Rembrandt, ^vho at the time of the painting of this pidlure, the for* 
ties, was at the height of his reputation. With all this is aUied a sort 
of romantic apotheosis of peasant Ufe on the Dutch high-roads which 
belongs to him alone, and renders his achievement the perfedted 
climax of the method fir^ foUo-sved by Molyn and Van Goyen. 

Adriaen is more reali^ically and perhaps also more pedantically 
inclined, but his execution is more arti^ic and more accomplished; 
and he disposes his Hght and colors more evenly and harmoniously. 
It is in a pidlure like that in the Borden Colledtion that he sho-svs him^ 
self to advantage. It presents the be^ of his art, shov/ing neither the 
somewhat brutal conception of his earHer works nor the hard cols 
oring of his later manner. The composition seems unintentional but 
is complete; the complex arrangement of the room does not have a 
re^less efFecft despite the large number of objedls on the ^valls, -while 
the figures give a happy and comfortable impression. 

While the art development of the tv/o Oi^ades shows quite des 
cidedly the peaceful spirit of the Rembrandt tradition, we find in 
Wou^vermans, however, a late representative of the military man^ 
ner of Frans Hals. It may be said that he is the la^ painter of the 
soldier subjedls favored by the latter 's school, although his ^tyle is 
rather reminiscent of Rembrandt's. The two pidtures in this collect 
tion are charadteri^ic. They show his preference for scenes of adtion 

i6 



from military or country life in tKe re^less regions affedied by the 
\var, where numerous groups of figures are arranged in a rick and 
wellscomposed pidlure. His motives, filling tKe canvas even to tKe 
corners, are inexKau^ible ; tKe drawing and, above all, tKe moves 
ment of figures and animals — not generally tKe i^rong point of tKe 
DutcK ScKool — are excellent; and tKe tecKniqueKas a fluency wKicK 
Kints at FrencK eigKteentK century art. TKe superiority of tKe arti;^, 
Kowever, as compared witK Kis predecessors, Palamedes, Esaias van 
de Velde, Duyster and otKers, lies in Kis under^anding of tKe art of 
di^ribution. Among tKese men we still Kave tKe reUef conception 
of Frans Hals, v/KicK usually permitted tKe consideration of only 
tKe foremo^ plane ; Kere, on tKe contrary, we find tKe pla^ic ^yle 
of tKe baroque of Rembrandt and Kis contemporaries, witK tKeir 
greater ricKness and variety of forms. WKenever tKe figures of tKe 
foreground allow a perspedlive vie^v, tKe eye is attracted into tKe 
middle di^ance by spirited figures, and new motives lead ^ill furtKer 
on, out into tKe background wKere ranges of Kills and a ^vellscoms 
posed, pla^ically clouded sky deepen tKe di^ance. 

DutcK landscape painting is represented in pictures by its two 
most important makers, Ruisdael and Hobbema ; by a seascape from 
tKe brusK of one of its best sea painters, Willem van de Velde, and 
a landscape of dunes by Jan Wynants. TKe fir^ among tKese men is 
Jacob Ruisdael, wKo, despite a momentary vogue for Hobbema, i^ill 
remains tKe great ma^er of DutcK, and, in fadt, of all earlier lands 
scape painting. His two pidlures Kere present similar motives — in 
eacK case a waterfall crossed by a footbridge and bounded by rocky 
and ^vooded banks — and botK date from tKe later period of tKe arti:^. 
Pictures of tKis kind, of wKicK Ruisdael produced a large number in 
tKe later years of Kis life, occasionally suffer tKe not ungrounded 
objection tKat tKey are too consciously composed and one censures 
tKe deficient conception of tKe arti^ wKo presumably never saw 
waterfalls and mountains. TKis, Kov/ever, is not tKe case in Kis be^ 
works, of v/KicK tKe great v/aterfall in tKe Borden Collediion is an 
in^ance. It manife^s in tKe KigKe^ degree tKe poetic feeling v/KicK 
raises tKe artii^ above all landscape painters of Kis time. TKat v/KicK 
we so often find wanting in DutcK landscape v/ork, tKe feeling of 

17 



unity to wKicli all detail is subordinated, is perfedlly expressed in 
tkese pidtures wkicK are the outcome purely of the imagination. 
The longing of tke Dutch people for the mountain scenery ^vhich is 
lacking in their native land has found expression at the hands of 
Ruisdael in these pidlures composed of Wrongly drawn mountains, 
tumbling ^vate^falls and dense oak fore^s, under a lowering sky, 
broken only by a pale green sheen at the horizon. And this form of 
expression seems to us adtual, because the arti^'s fancy and his ex^ 
traordinary memory for the individual features-of nature have been 
guided by a hand te^ed in decades of experience; and because they 
are the creations of a serious and refledtive mind, which, during his 
later years, deeply felt the noble and solemn beauty of melancholy 
regions overca:^ with gloomy clouds, where he was more at home 
than in sunshiny scenes. 

Compared v^ith Ruisdael, Hobbema has a more friendly air ; he 
does not wander far, but exerts all his powers in the portrayal of 
serene and poetic fore^ landscapes such as he sees about him. This 
pidlure of the Ca^le of Ko^tverloren belongs to his earHer period, 
Avhen he kept especially close to nature. It is a simple ^udy which 
was executed in the autumn, perhaps on the spot, or after only sUghtly 
altered preUminary sketches and without much thought for compos 
sition. This ca^le, built in the fifteenth century and now no longer 
landing, was several times painted by the arti^. In one of his pic? 
tures, ^vhich was sold at Am^erdam in 1907, the tower is seen fi?om 
the side where i^ands the chimney, and in the wall of the main build? 
ing the remains of a gable may be di^inguished. 

Jan Wynants also presents a typical Dutch landscape in a pidture 
of dunes with blamed oaks by the roadside, a landscape of the type 
\vhich one finds in Guelders, a region ^vhich because of its dunes and 
woods often lured the Haarlem painters — of whom Wynants was 
one— into ^udy trips. But we mu^ not believe that this landscape 
is an accurate transcript from nature. From other -works of the artii^ 
we know that certain features, such as the blamed trees, the sandy 
road leading around the hillock and from which an old pale^fence 
draggles down, and even the deep blue sky v/ith isolated lumpy 
clouds, are typical composition motives of the arti^ that have been 

18 



used by Kim often. TKougK Kandicapped by tKe sotnewKat Kard and 
lifeless ^yle, ^svhicK is particularly cKaradteristic of Kis later pictures, 
kis compositions make a pleasant impression because of their wells 
balanced proportions and especially when tbey are enlivened as in 
tbis case, by figures painted in by tbat great little ma^er, Adriaen 
vandeVelde. 

In Dutcb art, paintings of tbe open sea are seldom met witb, no 
doubt because tbe arti^ic centres of tbe country being mainly inland 
tbe arti^ did not tben experience tbe desire — ^vbicb bas been awaks 
ened by modern city life — to settle some'svbere on tbe seasbore far 
av/ay from tbe world. Tbe pidture by V/illem van de Velde, dated 
1661, and belonging to bis Am^erdam period, represents not tbe 
open sea but tbe Zuyder Zee, wbicb was nearer tbe painter's bome. 
He achieved bis be^ work wben depidting a quiet, sunny afternoon, 
^vitb tbe water clearly mirroring yellow and brov/n sails, and sbips 
outlined in tbe di^eince again^ a warm bazy sky. 

FLEMISH SCHOOL 

THE ensemble of Flemish painting in the seventeenth century is 
not as manyssided as that of the Dutch School; above all, the 
speciahi^s, commanding a small field to perfection, are lacking, as 
though they had been unable to develop beside the dominating 
Rubens. It is therefore quite proportionate to the representation of 
the Dutch School, in this collection, that Flemish art should appear 
in but few examples — a portrait by Anton van Dyck and a genre 
pidture by David Teniers. 

The portrait by Van Dyck is a ma^erpiece of the arti^'s Antwerp 
period, the period Avben he acquired the ma^ery of simple noble 
forms, and sho\ved as much mental composure as v/as compatible 
with his revive and nervous temperament. The wild passion o£ 
precocious youth, the noisy elegance of the Genoese period had been 
conquered, and the arti^ painted in his home city, Antwerp, a series 
of portraits di^inguished by an intensive characterization of the 
heads, simple firm outlines, and a reserved gray tone. In the care^ 
less, indolent position of the hand in our portrait we already detedl 
the approaching note of his EngUsh period, but the quiet and im* 

19 



pressive Kead sKows ^ill the ^amp of individuality. A late copy of 
this pidture, wKick is ^ill catalogued as tke original, is now in the 
museum at Douai, and tKe sitter is designated as Hubert DuKot. It 
is a moot auction to wKat extent this designation is ju^ifiable, and 
wKetker or not it is based upon tradition. 

Having fir^ considered DutcK painting, Flemisb pidlures seem less 
varied in tbeir types, less individual in tbeir cbaradleri^ics. Teniers 
is a marked example in point, be repeatedly uses tbe same types, even 
upon tbe same canvas. For in^ance, tbe lover in tbe foreground of 
tbe pidture in tbe Borden Collection figures also as one of tbe men 
near tbe fireplace. Tbat wbicb inter e^s us principally in Flemisb, 
as compared v/itb Dutcb painting, is tbe fluent tecbnique reminding 
one of Frencb art and sbarply di^inguisbed from tbe beavy impa^o 
of tbe Dutcbmen, as well as tbe omission of useless details, and tbe 
brigbt fresb coloring wbicb lends even to serious scenes a fe^b/e 
cbaradter . In tbis particularly well-preserved and excellent example 
tbese traits are pleasingly obvious. Tbe room is not overburdened 
witb detail, as is often tbe case in Dutcb interiors ; even tbe dog and 
tbe ^illslife are painted ^vitb a freedom and a feeling for essentials 
wbicb brings to mind tbe vv^ork of tbe greater ma^er of ^illsUfe in 
France, Cbardin. Tbe couple in tbe foreground is not only well com? 
posed and excellently drawn, but also exceptionally effedtive in its 
scbeme of color, notably in tbe garments of tbe v/oman, ber blue 
skirt, red bodice, ^vbite sbift and cap. Tbe pidlure depidls tbat peas^ 
ant bfe for tbe portrayal of v/bicb Teniers is famous. 

ITALIAN SCHOOL 

T X T'E do not ^ray far from our field if, in conclusion, ^ve consider 
W two paintings of tbe ItaHan Scbool; Venetian viev/s by Fran? 
cesco Guardi — for tbe Venetian Scbool is more intimately related to 
tbe Dutcb tban is any otber of tbe Italian Scbools,and comparisons 
between Dutcb and Venetian art bave often been made. Tbe simi? 
larity lies in tbe influence exerted upon art by partly similar climatic 
conditions. Mucb moi^ure in tbe atmospbere creates a fine silvery 
baze wbicb veils tbe contours of tbe objedls and gives greater intere^ 
and significance to atmospberic appearances. Dutcb, as well as Ve? 

20 



netian painting, is therefore remarkalDle in its rendering of air and 
light, and among tKe Venetians no one understood kow to reproduce 
in Kis pidlures tKe sKimmering sun o{\^emce as Guardi. Truly, in 
the art of Guardi we are considerably removed from tKe NetKer* 
lands, not only geograpKically, but because tKe sun of tKe soutK was 
an inspiration for a brigKter and infinitely more briUiant scale of 
colors. PerKaps tKe more important difference is tKat of time; tKe 
great Hollanders belong to tKe Baroque period witK its feeKng for 
massive, Keavy forms, for ^rong contra^s of ligKt and sKade, and 
for cumbersome dra^ving. Guardi is a representative of tKe Rococo, 
wKicK transformed Keavy forms into weU^composed masses, ^raigKt 
broad Hnes into sKort cind elegant curves, and v/KicK brigKtened cKis 
aroscuro and brougKt out scintillating KgKt. If we compare tKis vie^w 
of tKe square of St. Mark \vitK Mr. Borden's pidlure by Pieter de 
HoocK, wKere tKe arti^ obviously ^rove for elegance and briUiant 
ligKt effedts, it is evident tKat Guardi belonged to a more advanced 
cind a Kappier time, to a period of easier Kving. TKe tsvo paintings, 
tKe viev/ of tKe Canale Grande and tKat of tKe Piazza San Marco, 
are small but excellent examples of Kis versatile and cKarming art. 



21 



EARLY 

DUTCH, FLEMISH AND ITALIAN 

MASTERS 



Early Dutch, Flemish and 
Italian Masters 



\ 



» 



I 


Aelbert Cuyp 


2 


Frans Hals 


3 


Meindert Hobbema 


4 


Pieter de HoocK 


5 


Adriaen van Ostade 


6 


Isack vein Ostade 


7 


Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn 


8 


Jacob van Ruisdael 


9 


Jacob van Ruisdael 


lO 


Gerard TerborcK 


1 1 


W^illem van de Velde 


12 


PKilips \Vou-sverman 


^3 


PKilips Wouw^erman 


14 


Jan^^ynants 


15 


Anton van Dyck 


16 


David Teniers tKe Younger 


17 


Francesco Guardi 


18 


Francesco Guardi 



[I] 

AELBERT CUYP 

BORN at Dordrecht in 1 620. Died there 1111691. Pupil of his 
father, Jacoh Gerrits Guy p. Primarily influenced hyjan 
van Goyen and Pieter Molyn, later by Rembrandt. Painter 
of landscapes, portraits, animals and ^ill Ufe. 

MAN EATING MUSSELS "^ ' 

On the right of the canvas, a blacksmith, Avearing a golden? 
brown jacket, is seated in his smithy beside a cask eating 
mussels ; a small boy and a little girl who ^vears a red bodice 
and a ^vhite apron are watching him. On the right two richly s 
dressed men are looking through a window. The smith's assise 
tant ^ands in the left backsground in the shadow, holding a 
hammer in his hand. A small dog Ues in front of the cask. On 
the left a cock and two hens. 

Signed at the lower left: A. C. 

Panel: H. 2o!4 inches; W. 30^/2 inches. 

This pidture is a smaller repHca of the painting in the Boys: 

mans Museum in Rotterdam. 

J. Smith: A catalogue raisonne of the \vork of the mo^ 

eminent Dutch, Flemish and French painters, London, 1829, 

No. 178. 

C. Hof^ede de Groot: A catalogue raisonne of the work of 

the mo^ eminent Dutch painters of the seventeenth century, 

London, 1909, No. 50. 

Exhibited at the Hudson? Fulton Celebration, New^ York, 1909, 

No. 14. 

Sale A. Febvre, Paris, 1882. 

Sale Baron de Beurnonville, Paris, 1883. 

Sale F. Zschille, Cologne, 1889. 

Colledtion Van Loon, Am^erdam. 

Collediion of Baron v. d. Heydt, BerUn. 

26 



MAN EATING MUSSELS 

AELBERT CUYP 



THE REVEREND CASPAR SIBELIUS 

FRANS HALS 



[2] 

FRANS HALS 

BORN at Antwerp in 1 584. Died at Haarlem in 1666. Pupil 
of Karel van Mander. Worked mo^ly in Haarlem. Painter 
of portraits and genre. 

THE REVEREND CASPAR SIBELIUS 

HalfslengtK. Turned slightly toward the rigkt, addressing Kis J~j I O^ 

congregation. TKe left hand is raised in eloquent ge^ure and 
Ke holds a small prayer-book in the right. He is dressed in 
black with a -white out^anding ruff and a black skull-cap. 

Signed on the right: Aetat Svae 47, An° 1^37^ F. Hals. At 

the top of the canvas, in the centre, the inscription Natus 

1590 S M Functus 40. 

Panel: H. loV^ inches; W. 8^4 inches. 

Print by J. Suyderhoef: (i) folio, inscribed ''1637 aet 48;" 

(2) small quarto inscribed: '' 1642 aet 53." 

Sibelius was born in Elberfeld in 1690, and preached fir^ in 

London, then in Zurich, and finally in Deventer, v/here he 

died in 1658. From v/hat is written on the back of the paint* 

ing it ^vould seem that Sibelius presented this portrait to a 

certain Professor Hoffman. 

E. V/. Moes: Iconographia Batavia, No. 7176, i and 2. 

E. W. Moes: Frans Hals, Bruxelles, 1909, No. 74. 

Hof^ede de Groot: No. 226. 

Exhibited at the Palais du Corps Legislatif, Paris, 1874. 

Exhibited at the Hudson? Fulton Celebration, New York, 

1909, No. 29. 

Collection of Hendrick Gijselaar? Assendelft, Am^erdam, 

1891. 



31 



[3] 

MEINDERT HOBBEMA 

BORNatAin^erdainmi638; died there in 1709. Educated 
under tKe influence of Jacob van Ruisdael. Worked at 
Am^erdam (seldom after 1668). Painter of wooded land= ri^ 



sea 



pes. L^ 

CASTLE KOSTVERLOREN ^ 

In tke centre a square tower of red brick, witb four i^eps 
gables, rises amid crumbling walls from tbe ca^le moat; four 
men are working on tbe v/alls. Near tbe entrance to tbe draw* 
bridge, two large trees witb autumn foliage, and a boy witb 
a man in a red coat ^valking along a road. Beyond tbe trees a 
cottage and gate, and bebind tbe ca^le, on tbe opposite side of 
tbe moat, are small woods. \Vbite clouds. 

Signed in tbe lower rigbt^band corner: M. Hobbema. 

Canvas: H. 22^4 incbes; V/. 29 14 incbes. 

Smitb, No. 116. 

Exhibited at tbe Hudson = Fulton Celebration, New York, 

1909, No. 47. 

Colledrion of Fred. Perkins, London (1835). 



(>' 



32 



CASTLE KOSTVERLOREN 

MEINDERT HOBBEMA 



1^^ 




^^ m til J. i i r I tAiaiMt ^ a 




:> "i^l^ ___ ^, , - 







THE MUSIC PARTY 

PIETER DE HOOCH 



[4] 

PIETER DE HOOCH 

BORN at Rotterdam in 1629. Died at Am^erdam after 
1684. Said to he a pupil of Nicolaes BercKem. His early 
works sKo\v tKe influence of tKe soldier painters of tKe Frans 
Hals scKool and of tKe pupils of Rembrandt, especially Karel 
Fabritius. He flr^ ^vorked mo^ly at Delft, later at Am^er? 
dam (from about 1665). Genre and portrait painter. 

THE MUSIC PARTY 

On a terrace leading at tbe rear into a park and skeltered by a 
curtain looped again^ a piUar, a young lady is seated singing ; 
sKe v/ears a -wbite silk dress and marks time witb her right 
band. A cavalier seated at tbe opposite side of tbe table ac= 
companies ber on tbe lute. A young lady, dressed in blue, 
i^ands reding ber band on tbe table, v^bicb is covered witb a 
dark^red Asia minor rug ; another, dressed in red, carrying a 
small lute in her right hand, advances through a door on the 
right. Beyond the park a building resembling the Am^erdam 
Tov/n Hall is visible. Evening sky. 

On the right hand the monogram PH. 

Canvas: H. 26 inches; W. 31V8 inches. 

About 1665=70. 

Smith Suppl., No. 13; Hof^ede de Groot, No. 136. 

Exhibited at tbe Hudson s Fulton Celebration, Ne^v York, 

1909, No. 57. 

Sale Nieu^venbuys (Brussels) in London, 1833. 

Sale Count R. de Cornelissen, Brussels, 1857. 

Sale Gilkinet, Paris, 1863. 

Sale Vicomte de Buisseret, Brussels, 1891. 

Colledlion of Baron Konigs^varter in Vienna. 



37 



[5] 

ADRIAEN VAN OSTADE 

BORN at Haarlem, 1 6 lo; died there in 1685. Pupil of Frans 
Hals and influenced by Brouwer and later by Rembrandt. 
Worked at Haarlem. Painter and etcKer of genre scenes. 

BACKGAMMON PLAYERS AT AN INN 7^^^ 

In tbe centre of a Komely room two men are seated at a table 
playing backgammon. The man on tbe left, dressed in yellow* 
bro^vn is drinking ; tbe man on tbe rigbt, in a gray co^ume, 
arranges bis pieces. In front of bim, to tbe rigbt, a peasant in 
a dark bluejacket and dark red bonnet is seated in a little arm* 
cbair \vitb bis back to tbe spectator. Tbe bo^ess, in dark blue 
dress and red wai^, ^ands fartber back to tbe rigbt of bim and 
offers bim a glass. At tbe back of tbe table two otber peasants 
in conversation. On tbe left a little dog lies on tbe floor. A 
door leads to tbe cellar at tbe rigbt. 

Signed above tbe dog : A. V. Ostade. 

Panel: H. 14 incbes; \V. 12I/2 inches. 

Mentioned by J. B. Descamps: La vie des peintres flamands, 

allemands et hollandais . . . Paris, 1753*64. 

Mentioned by Ch. Blanc: Le tresor de la Curiosite, Paris, 

1857*58,11,169. 

Smith, No. 31 and 43. 

Hof^ede de Groot, No. 828 and 821 g. 

Exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, 1892, No. 97. 

Exhibited at the Guildhall, London, 1894, No. 66. 

Sale Anthony Sydervelt, Am^erdam, 1766. 

Sale Gerard Braamcamp, Am^erdam, 1771. 

Sale P. Calkoen, Am^erdam, 1781. 

Sale Calonne, Paris, 1788. 

Sale Calonne, Paris, 1795. 

Colledlion of E. H. Lawrence, London. 



38 



BACKGAMMON PLAYERS AT AN INN 

ADRIAEN VAN OSTADE 



PEASANTS BEFORE AN INN 

ISACK VAN OSTADE 



I 




ISACK VAN OSTADE 

BORN at Haarlem in 1621 ; died tKere in 1649. P^pi^ of his 
brother, Adriaen. Worked at Haarlem. {j '7(J (J 

PEASANTS BEFORE AN INN 

Two peasant houses on the left side of a road Avhich leads to a 
village with a church in the right di^ance. The fir^ house has 
an arbor near v/hich some peasants are drinking and smoking. 
In the foreground to the right a table, on which leans a peasant 
holding up a glass of beer to a ^voman who is seen from behind. 
A child ^ands nearby. He wears a gray^blue coat v/ith yel? 
low sleeves, and the woman has a brov/n co^ume and vv^hite 
head-dress. AHttle to the rear ^ands a group of two peasants 
and a v/oman with a child in conversation. Before the second 
house a white horse feeding ; a man and a Uttle girl with a pail 
nearby. A man is leaning over the house door. In the left fore? 
ground an overturned basket. Trees behind the houses. 

Signed on the ^one on which the woman sits. 
Panel : H. 15 inches; ^V. 21 V2 inches. 
Hof^ede de Groot, No. 242c. 
Sale J. de Kommer, Am^erdam, 1767, No. 71. 



43 



[7] 

REMBRANDT HARMENSZ VAN RIJN 

ORN in Leyden on July 15, 1606. Died in Am^erdam on 



B 



October 4, 1669. Studied under Jacob van Sv/anenburgb 
in Leyden and under Pieter Lawman in Am^erdam. Lived 
in Leyden till 1631, tben in Am^erdam. In 1634 be married 
Saskia van Uilenburgb, v/bo died in 1642. His second v/ife 
was Hendrickje StofFels,\vbodied in 1663. Painter and etcber 
of portraits and religious subjedls; of genre pidlurcs, mytbos 
logical, allegorical and bi^orical scenes. f\ r 

LUCRETIA STABBING HERSELF ' 

More tban balf4engtb. Tbe figure, v/itb bead sbgbdy inclined 

to tbe left, faces tbe spectator. Witb ber rigbt band sbe points 

a dagger at ber brea:^, v/bile tbe uplifted left band is extended 

to\vard tbe spedlator. Sbe wears a ricb greenisb^gold colored 

dress witb v/ide sleeves and a laced bodice ; around ber tbroat a 

necklace of pearls and a i^ring Avitb a pendant; a pearl in ber 

ear. 

Signed on ber left: Rembrandt f. 1664. 

Canvas: H. 46V2 incbes; V/. 39 incbes. 

Smitb, No. 192; E.Dutuit,Oeuvre completde Rembrandt, Paris, 

1883, P- 5^^ ■^°- ^^4' ^- Micbel, Rembrandt, Paris, 1893, pp. 

489, 563; V/. Bode, (assisted by C. Hof^ede de Groot): Tbe 

Complete Works of Rembrandt, Paris, 1897 ff. No. 595; ^V. 

R. Valentiner; Rembrandt (Klassiker der Kun^), 1910, p. 647. 

Exbibited at tbe Hudson^ Fulton Celebration, New York, 

1909, No. 105. 

Sale Prince Paul Demidoff, San Donato, 1880. 

Colled;ion Lapeyriere, Paris, 1825. 

Anonymous CoUedlion, London, 1826. 

Colledtionof M. Zacbary, London, 1828. 

Colledtion of J. H. Munro, Novar. 

Anonymous Colledtion, London, 1889. 

44 



6> 



LUCRETIA STABBING HERSELF 

REMBRANDT HARMENSZ VAN RIJN 



THE CASCADE 

JACOB VAN RUISDAEL 



i 



[8] 

JACOB VAN RUISDAEL 

BORN at Haarlem in 1 628529. Died tKere in 1682. Probably 
a pupil of Cornelius Vroom and bis uncle Salomon Ruys? 
dael. Worked at Haarlem and at Am^erdam (1657*1681). 
Landscape painter. _,^ 

THE CASCADE 

A little lake extends from tbe left of tbe canvas towards tbe 
rigbt, wbere it forms a cascade spanned by a wooden bridge. A 
man wearing a red jacket, carrying a sack on bis back and 
followed by a dog, is walking over tbe bridge. Tbree men are 
fisbing from tbe left sbore of tbe lake ; on its furtber sbore tbree 
bouses ^and on billy ground. To tbe rigbt an oak v/ood, and 
beyond a cbain of di^ant bills. Dark gray clouds in a pale 
blue sky. 

Signed on tbe louver left : J v Ruisdael (JvR combined). 

Canvas: H. 28V2 incbes;\V. 35V2 incbes. 

Exbibited at tbe Hudson? Fulton Celebration, Ne^v York, 

1909, No. 116. 

Sale Pereire, Paris, 1872. 

Sale Prince Paul Demidoff, San Donato, 1880. 

Colledlion of tbe Duke of Mecklenburg, 1854. 



49 



I 



[9] 

JACOB VAN RUISDAEL , . o 

A V/ATERFALL 

ABROAD i^ream, wKicK comes out underneatK a little 
wooden bridge in the middle di^ance, flows from the 
right and breaks do^vn between rocks in the foreground. A 
high bank on the opposite side to the left is thickly covered 
v/ith cak trees, some of which have autumn leaves. On the 
bridge, v/hich leads to the lower bank at the right, tv/o men in 
conversation ; a third man is ^valking to the left accompanied 
by a dog. Behind the bridge a single oak tree i^ands again:^ the 
sky with reflection of light on its branches, and farther back 
a graysblue hill. Another single, but thinner, tree on the right 
bank. The blue sky is almo^ covered with dark gray clouds 
with pink borders. 

Signed in the right foreground: J v Ruisdael ( J vR combined). 
Canvas: H. 26 V2 inches; W. 21 inches. 



50 




^HTA\^ A 



rAV HC 



iJiii 



A WATERFALL 

JACOB VAN RUISDAEL 




[im^^m 



JL 



LADY POURING WINE 

GERARD TERBORCH 



[10] 

GERARD TERBORCH 

BORN at Zwolle in 1617. Died at Dcventer in 168 1. Pupil 
of his father and Pieter Molyn ; influenced by Frans Hals, 
Rembrandt and Velazquez. Traveled in Germany, Italy, Spain, 
England and France. V/orked mo^ly at De venter. Painter of 
genre scenes and portraits. ^/ 

LADY POURING V/INE 

Three half4ength figures. On the left a young woman in a 
red jacket and a gray skirt pours -wine from a pewter flagon 
for a man sitting on the right, v/ho looks hack towards her, as 
the old mother landing behind her daughter offers him a plate 
of food. He wears a dark suit and a large black hat. 

Panel: H. 13 inches; ^^. io!4 inches. 

Smith Suppl., No. 22. 

Exhibited at the Hudson^ Fulton Exhibition, New York, 1909, 

No. 129. 

Colledlion Van Loon, Am^erdam, 1842. 



55 



[11] 

WILLEM VAN DE VELDE 

BORN at Leyden in 1633. Died at Greenwich in 1677. P^pil 
of his father, V/illem van de Velde the elder and of Simon 
de Vheger . Worked at Am^erdam and from 1 673 at London . J 
Marine painter. ■('O 



CALM SEA 



5 



A hoat with large cream^colored sails Kes in a hay extending 
towards the left of the canvas. A smaller hoat is anchored he* 
side it. In the left foreground a dyke fortified ^vith piles, on 
which are seen two men. A hoat "with three fishermen at 
v/ork in it Hes nearhy . A fourth man advcinces along the shore 
from the right, carrying a basket on his hack. Ju^ beyond, two 
men are bathing off a Httle promontory where a sail^boat has 
been beached. Several frigates are lying at anchor at the mouth 
of the bay. Afternoon light. V/arm yellowish clouds in a blue 
sky. 

Signed on a piece of wood in the foreground: W. V. V. 1661. 
Canvas: H, 14 V2 inches; W. I8^^ inches. 
Exhibited at the Hudson^Fulton Celebration, Nev/ York, 1909, 
No. 134. 



56 



CALM SEA 

WILLEM VAN DE VELDE 



JD 



GROOMS WATERING HORSES 

PHILIPS WOUV^ERMAN 








§3 



H 



[12] 

PHILIPS WOUWERMAN 

BORN at Haarlem in 1619 ; died tKere in 1668. Pupil of Kis 
father, of Frans Hals and Pieter Verbeeck. He was for a 
time at Hamburg and ^vas possibly in Italy. Painter and etcKer 
of landscapes and scenes \vitb Horses. 

GROOMS WATERING HORSES 

At a broad river, crossing tbe pidlure diagonally, horses are 
being ridden in and out of the water. On tbe left a large i^one 
bridge \vitb two arcbes leads to a town in tbe di^ance, A 
man on tbe left wbips a borse to make it enter tbe -water. To 
tbe rigbt of bim a groom, witb a boy behind him, rides a white 
horse out of the -water. Farther right another rider lets bis horse 
^and and drink; it is seen from the back. Near these are tw^o 
bathers and two men undressing. Farther in tbe river are two 
revive horses near a boat. On the opposite bank are washer? 
women. To the left, through the front arch of the bridge, is 
seen a harve^ -wagon, which is being loaded. 

Signed v/ith the fuU monogram. 

Panel: H. 13^^ inches; W^. iSVa inches. 

Engraved by Champollion. 

Mentioned by G. F. V/aagen, Treasures of Art in Great Bri? 

tain, London, 1854, II, p. 291. Smith Suppl. 7, No. 170. Hof: 

^ede de Groot, No. 112. 

Exhibited in London, 1853. 

Sales Earl of Ashburnham, London, 1850 and i860. 

Sale Miss Bredel, London, 1875. 

Sale Nieuwenhuys, London, 1881. 

Colledlion of the Earl of Ashburnham, 1842. 

Colledlion of M. de Saint Albin, Paris. 

Colledtion of Comte Arthur de Vogue, Paris. 

61 



jlr^ 



[13] 

PHILIPS WOUWERMAN ^,o 

THE SUTLER'S BOOTH 

IN front of a sutler's bootk witk a flag and a garland on the 
left are some horsemen and two ladies. On the extreme left 
:^ands a man in profile to the right. Next to Kim, and farther 
back, are a lady on horseback and a mounted trumpeter. Next 
to him is a gray horse, ^thout a rider, facing right. Next 
come a lady, seen fi?om the back, and an officer ^vho caresses 
her -svith one hand and re^s the other on the saddle of his 
horse, \vhose head is turned away. In the right middle diss 
tance is a group of soldiers with an ensign among them. Be? 
yond on a broad plain is a camp. Three dogs play in front. 

Signed with the monogram. 

Canvas: H. ic^Va inches; V/. 25I4 inches. 

Smith, No. 178. 

Hof^ede de Groot, No. 866, and Suppl., No. 64. 

Engraved in Jean Moyreau : Oeuvres de Ph. \Vouwermans 

gravees d'apres ses meilleurs tableaux, Paris, 1737^62 (new edi* 

tion, Paris, 1843), ■^^' 77 ^^ ''Les ^uartiers desVivandiers". 

Le Brun Colledtion, Paris, 1754. 

Sale Montribloud, Paris, 1784. 

Sale Claude Tolozan, Paris, 1801. 

Sale Lapeyriere, Paris, 1817. 

Sale London, 1835. 

Sale Adrian Hope, London, 1894. 



62 





3HT 



^av/uov/^ 



^3 




0k i« ^•OB^' 



THE SUTLER^S BOOTH 

PHILIPS "WOU'SVERMAN 



HILLY LANDSCAPE WITH GROVE OF TREES 

JAN •WTfNANTS 




HVOilD HI 



[14] 

JAN WYNANTS 

BORN at Haarlem about 1620. Died very likely at Ambers 
dam in 1682. Worked in Haarlem until about 1660, then 
inAm^erdam. Dated works from 1641 to 1679. L^^dscape 
pciinter. / -C ^ 

HILLY LANDSCAPE V/ITH GROVE OF TREES 

A road leads from tbe foreground around a Kill to a grove of 
trees. At tbe left, at tbe side of tbe road, a traveller, in pink 
coat and yello^v trousers, talks to a woman seated on tbe 
ground. A dog nearby. Anotber road leads dov/n tbe biU 
tbrougb a gate of a treUis, wbicb surrounds tbe bill and joins 
tbe fir^ road in tbe foreground near a little pool. A woman 
witb a bundle on ber bead, accompanied by a dog, descends 
from tbe bill. In tbe rigbt foreground two gnarled oak trees 
and some sbrubbery. Bebind tbese are wooded bills and a 
cornfield. Around it leads a road along wbicb a borseman 
and a peasant are advancing. Blue sky witb rising dark gray 
clouds \vitb yellow borders. 

Signed in tbe left foreground: J. Wynants, An. 1663. 

Canvas: H. ic^Va incbes; W. 24 !4 incbes. 

Tbe figures are by tbe band of Adriaen van de Velde. 



67 



[15] 

ANTON VAN DYCK 

BORN at Antwerp in 1599. Died at London in 1641. Pupil 
of Hendrik van Balen and worked in tKe atelier of Rubens . 
In England for tKe fir:^ time in 1621 . 1622*27 traveling in Italy, 
especially in Venice, Rome and Genoa. 1627531 in Ant^ve^p, 
1632 in London. Painter of religious and mythological sub? 
jedls and especially of portraits. With Rubens, ebief ma;^er 
of the FlemisK School. J 

G ^' 

PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN 1/ 

TKree^quarters length, landing, seen in front, the head sUghtly 
turned to the right. He has a mou^ache and small pointed 
beard, the hair combed back. The left hand hangs down; the 
right is covered by a mantle v/hich is thrown over his should 
ders. Black co^ume with v/hite ruff. Dark gray background. 

Canvas: H. 44 inches; W. 37!/^ inches. 

Painted in the second Antwerp period, about 1630. A copy 

of the pidlure is in the Museum of Douai under the name of 

''Portrait of Hubert Duhot." 

Reproduced in : E. Schaffer, Van Dyck, (Klassiker der Kunst), 

1909, p. 243. 



68 



PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN 

ANTON VAN DYCK 



b 



V/OMAN SMOKING IN AN INN 

DAVID TENIERS THE YOUNGER 



[16] 

DAVID TENIERS THE YOUNGER 

BORN at Antwerp in 1610. Died at Brussels in 1590. Pupil 
of Kis fatKer, David Teniers tke elder. Influenced by Rubens 
and especially by Brouwer. Worked at Antv/erp (member of 
the guild since 1632) and at Brussels. Painter and engraver. 

^VOMAN SMOKING IN AN INN 

To tbe left sits a Avoman in a gray?blue petticoat, wbite skirt 
and pink wai:^, lighting a pipe. A peasant nearby puts bis arm 
around ber neck and offers ber a glass of wine. He -wears a 
bro\vn coat and dark brown bonnet. To tbe rigbt of tbe group 
a barrel, on wbicb ^ands an eartben jug, a pot and a napkin. 
A little dog re^s quietly in tbe left foreground. In tbe back? 
ground an open door and a cbimneyspiece witb a fire, near 
wbicb two men are landing and conversing and a tbird 
^varms bis feet. In tbe rigbt foreground a ^ill Kfe. Plain gray 
background from v/bicb tbe figure of tbe woman ^ands out 
clearly. 

Signed in tbe left corner : D. Teniers. 

Canvas: H. 14% incbes; V/. 20V2 incbes. 

Smitb, No. 377. 

Sale Claude Tolozan, Paris, 1801. 

Sale London, 1818. 

Sale Jobn Webb, London, 1821. 



^/)-^ 



73 



[17] 

FRANCESCO GUARDI 

BORN at Venice in 1712; died there in 1793. Pupil and 
follower of Antonio Canale. \Vorked moi^ly in Venice. 
Painter of architedlural and perspedlive vie-vvs. J 

THE PIAZZA OF SAN MARCO, VENICE 

Viev/ on tKe piazza from tKe side of tKe CKurcK of San Marco. 
In tKe left foreground tKe louver part of tKe tower of San Marco 
and a part of tKe logietta. TKe galleries extend to tKe rigKt and 
left, tKe left side Keing in sKadow. In tKe foreground two 
Kronze flag Kolders. Ladies and gentlemen, seen mo^ly fbom 
KeKind, in pink, yellow and \vKite co^umes, are saluting and 
walking over tKe piazza; tKe gentlemen v/ear long mantles, 
tKreescornered Kats and tKe Kair in Kraids ; tKe ladies wear side 
dresses witK long trains. LigKt Klue sky v/itK HgKter yellow 
rays to tKe left wKere tKe sun Kas disappeared. 

Canvas: H. of^/a, incKes; ^^. 14 incKes. 



74 




nOiMH\ 



'm 



THE PIAZZA OF SAN MARCO, VENICE 

FRANCESCO GUARDI 



r 



A 



^THE GRAND CANAL NEAR THE PIAZZA 
OF SAN MARCO, VENICE 



FRANCESCO GUARDI 



%A, 




jl» 



^ 




* 



Aiq ?'' 



x^ n 



lO: 



W 



^V^^iU 



[18] 

FRANCESCO GUARDI 

THE GRAND CANAL NEAR THE PIAZZA OF 
SAN MARCO, VENICE 

A VIEW from Santa Maria della Salute. To the left tlie 
libreria and tke column of San Marco, bekind v/Kick 
a part of the Doge's palace is visible. The canal, witK some 
simple bouses, bebind wbicb are some towers and domes, 
extends to tbe rigbt. A large galleon in tbe centre of tbe \vater 
and a smaller one to tbe rigbt ; anotber on tbe land to tbe left. 
Numerous gondolas witb simple, or witb ricbly decorated, 
baldacbinos in tbe foreground, in wbicb are seated people in 
ligbt red and blue co^umes. Wbite refledtions on tbe blue 
v/ater and tbe boats. Silver blue sky witb ligbt pink borizon. 

Panel: H. 9I4 incbes; W. I3^^ incbes. 



U 



too 



79 



PAINTINGS OF 
THE ENGLISH MASTERS 

By August F. Jaccaci 

I^^^^N Mr. Borden's colledlion of EnglisK pidlures, all 
^^^^1 tKe leading eighteenth century portrait painters, 
l^j^^^w with the exception of Raeburn, are represented. 
1^^^^^ In a manner of their own suited to the tai^e and 
I^^^^S needs of the period, the painters of this school 
^w^^Hi] carried on the gracious and urbane style of Van 
K^n§^(^Sii(Sk^^fj( Dyck, as well as the traditions of the old ItaHan 
makers, especially those of the Venetians, which cemie partly through 
Van Dyck, and in the case of Sir Joshua were rene^wed at their source. 
A certain union of dignity, grace, ease, and the adaptability of the 
portrait to a decorative arremgement as e^abUshed by the painters of 
the grand hfe of Venice, by Titian especially, is thus carried into the 
eighteenth century, but the subjedts and the art are native. While 
the Itahan tradition predominates only in the -works of the famous 
fir^ president of the Royal Academy, and the production of each 
arti^ has its originality and di^incft charadleri^ics, its marked difs 
ference of temperament and education, all endeavored to give the 
particular elegance, the well-bred manner v/hich was the cachet of 
English society at the time, all found their individual mode of express 
sion within this general desire — and, no doubt, necessity — to depidt 
the refinements of Hfe. Hence their ' 'air de famille." They all are, Kke 
their illu^rious predecessor Van Dyck, painters of fashion, who only 
saw their sitters (^vhether of high or low degree) in attitudes and ^vith 
expressions which were recognized as de bon ton in the fashionable 
world. Even when they were not men of culture, they refledled the 
amenities and poHte graces of their cultured miHeu. We may add that 
it was their great good fortune — and ours — that the ta^e of their time 

83 



v/as good, and tKe co^umcs simple, mo^ becoming and eminently 
paintable. Pidlorially and psycKologically the portrait painters of 
the eigbteentK century EnglisK School Kave met tkeir problem and 
used their material with fine results, and deservedly achieved a great 
success. 

Mr. Borden's colledlion comprises some typical examples. In 
''Miss Morris" the seriousness and intelledlual weight ^vhich belong 
to Sir Joshua, the acknowledged head of the school, and to him alone, 
are clearly evident ; and they are here allied to a sense of composition 
quite free from conventional canons. The ingratiating personaUty 
of this ^raightforward, innocent and sensible young lady is rendered 
with authority as Avell as kindly under landing. W^ith aU that innate 
elegance which is the di^inguishing mark of the art of the period, this 
canvas has the poise, the dignified tenderness of the arti^; and the 
grave sympathy, the unaffected and penetrating ^raightforwardness 
of its portraiture, are revealed in the noble simpUcity of its treatment. 

Gainsborough's portrait of '"'Miss Horde" has all his verve, finesse 
and his unrivaled piquancy of execution. The Ughtness and grace 
of this vv^ork in oils has the playfulness o£ touch, the daintiness of 
improvisation, of a pa^el, and is admirably suited to the presentation 
of so vivacious, spirituelle, and entirely sophi^icated a young per;: 
son. Sitter and painter present the critical and philosophical attitude 
of the eighteenth century. The artful simpHcity of pose and co^ume 
give extraordinary intere^ and importance to the ''sguardo," the 
look in the eyes, and to the smiHng mouth. This mo^ expressive 
and delightful piece of charadlerization is carried out in a subdued 
and harmonious scheme of color. 

The dash, abandon and supreme cleverness of the great virtuoso 
of the school. Sir Thomas Lawrence, are fully revealed in his ''Miss 
Kent." And it is the more valuable an example that it retains the 
freshness and attractiveness of a happy, thoroughly arti^ic and satiss 
fying improvisation. Cleverness allied with elegance and painter? 
like feeling can go no further. Co^ume and draperies are merely 
brushed in, and in contra^, the head v/hich is carried much farther, 
acquires the finished bloom of a perfedt flov/er. The face in profile is 
representative of the EngUsh "beauty" of the time, for it is evident 

84 



tKat tKe ''classic" type, wKicK was then in fasKion, afFedls tKe por* 
traiture. 

Romneyhas a full and varied representation. An important com? 
position, ''the Willet Children;" an almo^ full4ength portrait said 
to he the "Countess of Glencairn," and an ideaK^ic representation 
of his favorite model, Emma Lyon (Lady Hamilton) as Madonna, 
whose pseudo^rehgious character gives the manner in w^hich the 
classical suhjedts of the ItaHan School were adapted to the ta^e ot 
pohte Enghsh society of the time. The Countess is an entirely repre? 
sentative pidture, although the lov/er part of the dress has either 
heen repainted or ^vas finished hy another hand. The natural and 
graceful pose, which recalls another celebrated portrciit of the arti^. 
Miss Frances V/oodley, brings out the feminine charm of the no 
more young hut ^ill mo^ attractive sitter. The dehonnaire treats 
ment has an easy assurance and a summary decorative sw^eep. The 
lady who is not absolutely identified may be the Lady Bell Cunnings 
hame, of whom according to Romney's ledger (under No. 33) he 
painted a half4ength and two whole4ength portraits, of ^vhich only 
one v/as finished. Lady Bell v/as Lady Isabelle Erskine, second 
daughter of the Tenth Earl of Buchan. She was fir^ married to 
WiUiam Leshe Hamilton, and secondly to the Rev. John Cunning; 
hame, who afterwards became the Fifteenth Earl of Glencairn. We 
have a li^ of the many sittings she gave to Romney during her firi^ 
and her second marriage. 

The large and important "Willet Children" is beautifully handled 
in an assured and convincing manner of presentation, which is so 
thoroughly suited to the subjedl as to be a part of it. Its composition 
seems as spontaneous as its technique ; both have the look o£ being 
born together by happy chance. The background is amusing in its 
rapidly sketched indication of a landscape motive, but it also plays 
its part well in the general arrangement, and in tone and color it 
admirably fijlfills its fundlion of bringing out the figures. The groups 
ing of the children might seem casual, but in reaHty it is carefijlly 
thought out and is mo^ efFedlive — only there is no trace of effort, 
all is perfedlly natural; yet poses, faces and expressions are fiill of 
character and each child has his clearly defined individuaHty. One 

85 



feels sure that here are good portraits. And wKen one remembers 
Kow few great portraits of children there are in the v/Kole field of 
art, one realizes how precious is this rare gift, this true underhand? 
ing of childhood which Romney show^s in such a canvas. It is one 
of his mo^ successfiil works, and,Ukethe ''Countess of Glencairn," 
it has that unaffedled grand air which is what eighteenth century- 
patrons desired and what remains to us also a large part of their 
appeal. 

In the Hoppner ''Miss Arhuthnut" we find the same viewpoint 
as in the v/orks of the other and greater men, and, in a measurable 
v/ay, it achieves the same success. It is a triumph of distinguished 
and rather sophi^icated simpKcity. Out of moi^ ordinary material, 
of a face with no particular beauty or specially marked character, the 
eighteenth century convention (a mo^ happy one in this ini^ance), 
while expressing enough of the real fadls, presents them with so 
fine a sense of elegance and breeding that as a result the pidlure is 
extremely attractive. The excellence of the general arrangement 
makes one pass over the faulty draughtsmanship in the lower part 
of the figure. One wonders if the arti^ was deprived of the one 
more sitting, or the few more moments he needed. But it may v/ell 
be that the arti^ did not care, and why should we? Are not all the 
essentials of the portraits there, all that is significant and matters? 
Does not the work tell — as it should — and tell graccfiilly and with 
mo^ capable under^anding? Is not the characterization excellent, 
the landscape background fine and the w^hole result deHghtfiil? 

When these portrait painters make use of nature in their back? 
grounds, they cannot but arrange it to suit their purpose. Having to be 
subordinated to the figures, it has to be treated artificially — much like 
a piece of tape^ry suspended behind the sitter. Even Gainsborough, 
who was both landscape and portrait painter (and seldom introduced 
landscape backgrounds in his portraits), and who painted some excels 
lent landscapes during his early period ^vhen he took his inspiration 
from the Dutch makers and was concerned with real fadts, soon fell 
into making use of nature in painting landscapes v/hich, while deco* 
rative and beautiful, are essentially arbitrary arrangements. 

86 



TKe English landscape painters on tke contrary went ^raiglit to 
nature for their fadls and their inspiration . Of course they knew and 
admired the Dutch and Flemish makers and they loved Claude, hut 
they took their suhjedls from the familiar nature around them, and 
to express themselves they developed a manner of their own. They 
mark the Parting point of modern landscape. Con^ahle was the 
precursor of the great Frenchmen of 1830, and we know what a 
revelation his work v/as to them and how it inspired them. 

Of him Mr. Borden has a small early example, ''The Sluice," one 
of those thorough ^udies of fadls upon v/hich are built the fresh, lus? 
cious and radiant achievements of his maturity. 

''The V/illow" is one of the mo^ important and be^ kno^vn pics 
tures of John Chrome ("Old Chrome"). It figured twice, in 1876 and 
1 89 1, at Winter Exhibitions of Old Makers at BurKngton House, 
and is considered the arti^'s mai^erpiece by Mr. J. C. Horsley, R. A., 
who seledled the EngHsh pidlures for both exhibitions. The two 
old trees which dominate the composition give it a nobly dramatic 
character. ^Varm glowing color is aUied to soHdity of con^rudlion, 
the peaceful country ^retching out to the di^ance is bathed in soft 
sunshine ; in the moi^ and luminous sky, tenuous summer clouds 
float across the azure. In this pidlure the dignity of a Dutch formal 
composition is united to a fresh native outlook. While this Dutch 
influence is marked. Chrome is too real, too profoundly sensitive to 
nature itself, for the work to be in any way derivative, it is English 
to the core. One would say that the attitude of this ^urdy British 
arti^ makes him nearer to Ruysdael than to Hobbema. Like him, his 
very serious and elevated mind dv/ells upon the more significant 
and deeper aspedls of nature. In the serenity and the ever young 
beauty of a summer's day, those two vigorous old trees, bearing the 
marks of the druggies of years with the elements, have a rugged 
grandeur, v/hich imposes itself and give a lyric quality to the ^vhole 
pidlure. 

Of the tsvo Turners in the colledlion, the small one belonging to 
his early period, a seascape with ^rong opposition of sunUt and dark 
masses, shows the harbor of Dover in the middle di^ance. The larger 
one, "The Regatta Bearing to W^indward," is a representative and 

87 



ma^crly example of tKe second and be^ period of the arti^. It is one 
of tKe scenes of yacKt racing in tKe Solent w^KicK lie eitker painted 
at, or during Kis visit to, Ea^ Cowes Ca^le, tlie Isle of WigKt seat 
of Kis friend Mr. NasK (tke great architedt of the Quadrant, Regent 
Street, etc.), in tlie autumn of 1827. Together witK a companion pic^ 
ture, ''The Regatta with the Royal Yacht Squadron Parting from 
its Moorings," ^vhich is now in the Sheepshank's colledlion at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 210), it was painted for Mr. Nash 
and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1828. That these yacht 
racing subjects fascinated him may be seen by the five examples, all 
of smaller size, which are in the Turner collection at the National 
Gallery (Nos. 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 199S). 

This pidlure, which with the Sheepshank's example is the be^ of 
the series, illu^rates not a romantic but a real phase of the arti^'s 
mind. Soberly conceived and soberly carried out it nevertheless ex^ 
presses the poetry as well as the bu^Ung spirit of the scene. The 
clear joyous sheen of sunlight on sea, boats and di^ance, the ^von? 
derful and exquisite atmospheric quaHty have never been surpassed 
by him and show^ him at his highe^. No one but him could have 
painted such a sky, of such infinite depth, in so high a key, so suffused 
v/ith tender light, and so alive and mouvemente. 

There is animation everywhere and tumult on the sea. The fluidity 
and weight of the rough water, the force of the vi^ind filling the sails, 
and the rush of the boats as they drive through the big waves, are 
marvelously expressed. In subjedts of this kind, objedlive, pregnant 
with observation and vital sympathy. Turner cannot be surpassed. 
It is not the picfturesqueness of the scene, but its life and truth — its 
dramatic quality — that appealed to him and appeals to us to-day. 

George Morland's intimate pa^oral note is an excellent example 
of the work of this hone^ and mo:^ sympathetic arti^, in which 
pigs, a donkey, a dog and a countryman are used to express the poet* 
ical charm of an EngUsh rural scene bathed in soft summer sunshine. 
Painted in a minor key, it fitly represents this mode^ man, -who is 
a genuine arti^ and not merely popular and pretty. To appreciate 
Morland's value as a painter we have only to compare him v/ith the 
Victorians who followed. ^Ve can enjoy his donkeys and his pigs 

88 



as we enjoy tKose of Decamps, and ke Kas a tenderness and a cKartn 
all his o\vn. 

In its atmospheric quality Nasmytk's ''EdinburgK from Gogar" 
sKows tKe influence of Claude and tke classical tradition is also felt 
in its artful and effedlive arcKitectonic arrangement. From tKe fore* 
ground, all lines carry the eye towards tKe centre of tKe pidlure, 
wKere, far away looming up as tKe focus of tKe wKole composition, 
tKe Ca^e dominates tKe city wKicK is lying at its feet. Tree masses 
very dark in tKe foreground, less dark in tKe middle di^ance, bring 
out cind empKasize tKe sKimmering beauty of tKe di^ance, tKe glow? 
ing ligKtness of tKe sky and its reflecilion in tKe water. 

A Kfessize portrait of a cKild Kolding a parrakeet on Ker Kand, 
"TKe Pet Bird" by Sir JoKn MiUais, is a ratKer late work, wKicK for 
its subjedl is more intere^ing tKan usual. Opus CCXXXII of Sir 
Alma Tadema is a scene witK two maidens seated in tKe loggia of a 
Roman villa. BotK are cKaradleri^ic examples of tKe two mo^ pop' 
ular arti^s of tKe modern EngUsK ScKool at tKe end of tKe nineteentK 
century. (Sir Alma Tadema, altKougK a Hollander born and bred, 
belongs to tKe EngHsK ScKool. He Kas done all Kis work in England, 
and is ^11 painting tKere). 



89 



ENGLISH MASTERS 



English Masters 

19 Sir Joskua Reynolds 

20 TKomas Gainsborough 

2 1 Sir TKomas Lawrence 

22 George Roniney 
2 3 George Romney 
24 George Roniney 

2 5 John Hoppner 

26 JoKn Constable 

27 Jobn CKrome 

28 Joseph Mallord \Villiani Turner 

29 Joseph Mallord William Turner 

30 George Morland 

3 I Patrick Nasmyth 

3 2 Sir John Everett Millais 

3 3 Sir Laurenz. Alma Tadema 



[19] 

SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, P. R. A. 



English School, 1723 5 1792 ^^ ^,[) 



MISS MORRIS 
(Afterwards Mrs. Lockwood) 

FULL BUST, life size, portrait of a young lady facing tKe 
spectator. TKe expression of Ker face is simple and girlisk; 
tKe eyes are dark, tKe dark Kair plainly combed back from the 
face is ornamented by an aigrette of red velvet adorned with 
a ^ring o£ small pearls. SKe is dressed in a gray silk robe with 
a low round opening at tKe neck Kaving a band of gold em? 
broidery edged v/itb lace. In tbe center of tbis band is a velvet 
bov/ witb pendant tbrougb wbicb is caugbt a ^rand of large 
pearls coming from under an outer garment, ajacket of light 
blue silk richly embroidered and trimmed with ermine. A 
jeweled clasp holds the bodice in the center. The Hght falls 
from the left and the background is a sky treated convene 
tionally. 

Size : H. 24 V2 inches ; W. 29 V^ inches. 

C. R. Leslies' ''LifeandTimesof Sir Joshua Reynolds'': Vol. I, 

p. 156. 

Sir Walter Arm^rong's ''Sir Joshua Reynolds." Catalogue. 



94 




^ 



MISS MORRIS 

SIR JOSHUA- REYNOLDS, P. R. A. 



MISS ANN HORDE 
Thomas Gainsborough, r. a. 




m 



i 



[ 20 ] 

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, R. A 

English School, ij2jfijhS j r. (j ^ 

MISS ANN HORDE 

OVAL, life size, bu^ portrait of a young lady turned tKree? 
quarters to the left and looking at the spectator. Her eyes 
are blue, Ker ligKt hair, curled and powdered, is encircled v/itli 
a blue silk ribbon, and at ber neck is a ^ring of amber beads. 
She wears a close-fitting blue silk dress, with a ficbu of trans? 
parent lawn over tbe neck and sKoulders, and a scarf of light 
silk material at the ^vai^ ; a dainty white underbodice shov/s a 
httle at the neck and fills the V? shape opening edged with 
white silk ribbon, w^hich ^eirts at the bottom and ends at the 
w^ai^ under a sash of Hght silk material. Brown background. 

Size: H. 28V2 inches; W. 24 inches. 
Sale Horde (of Norfolk). 



99 



[21] 

SIR THOMAS LAWRENCE, R R. A. 

English School, 1769*1830 -/. d 

MISS KENT 

LIFE SIZE bu^ portrait of a young lady seen in profile to 
tke left again^ a dark background. Her dark nair ^vith 
golden brown Ugbts brings out the brilliant color, tbe ''milk 
and roses," of ber face. Sbe wears a wbite dress ^vitb a large 
Vssbape opening at the neck, A golden yellow drapery is 
tbro-svn over ber rigbt sboulder and arm, wbile tbe rigbt band 
re^s over a ligbt crimson drapery tbro-wn over tbe back of a 
cbair. 

Size: H. 291/2 incbes; V/. 24 V2 incbes. 



100 




_36aia 



MISS KENT 

SIR THOMAS LAWRENCE, P. R. A. j,^ 



,i< . . tutii ii KKftictfriicctrrrffrii iU 1 1 fft rrfrtr tifT fiTTKlPPPCi'' 




THE WILLETT CHILDREN 

GEORGE ROMNEY 



[22] 

GEORGE ROMNEY ^-o^O 

English School, 17345 1802 ' 

THE V/ILLETT CHILDREN 

THE portrait of tKree ckildren, a brother and Kis sixers, 
with a landscape background filled ^vith an evening sky- 
again^ which, to the right, is broadly sketched a group of trees. 
The two girls, dressed in -white, are sitting on the ground. The 
boy ^ands at the left, his blonde, long and curly hair framing his 
face which is turned towards the spectator, his hands are thrui^ 
in his pockets, and his whole attitude is one of boyish self: 
rehance. He wears a reddish bro^vn silk coi^ume, a -white col? 
lar fluted on the edge, white dockings and shoes vv^ith buckles. 
The httle girls are holding hands. The older si^er in the center 
faces forward and looks up at her brother; the younger one to 
the right faces the background, but her head is turned around 
and she looks mischievously at the spectator; bothv/ear sashes, 
the one on the right of blue, the bow of which is seen at her 
back, the other of yellowish bro^vn. 

Size : H. 59 inches; W. 47 inches. 

Humphrey \Vard and W. Roberts' ''Romney," Vol.11, p. 171. 



105 



[23] 

GEORGE ROMNEY 

SECOND EXAMPLE 

COUNTESS OF GLENCAIRN(?) 

(Lady Isabella Erskine, wife of Rev. John Guns 
ninghame, XV Earl of Glencairn, was the second 
daughter of the tenth Earl of Buchan. Her firi^ ^0 

husband was Wm. LesUe Hamilton.) ^ i 

LIFE SIZE, full length. A young woman ^ands in cin easy 
pose with right knee bent, the right arm re^ng upon a 
high pedei^al, the hand raised to the head which is turned full 
three-quarters to the right with the eyes looking up. Her dark 
hair dressed with silk ribbons falls on the shoulders. Her left 
hand hanging gracefully down holds the soft crimson drapery 
^vhich, folding over her right arm and shov/ing along her left 
side, serves to bring out the white of her very simple dress 
opened V* shape at the neck and ^vith dark blue sash at the 
wai^. The :^one pede^al, the large vase surmounting it and 
the tree trunks behind it form a solid dark background to the 
left, while, to the right, the background is filled with sky with 
foliage at the top and a bit of landscape showing at the bottom. 

Size: H. 68|4 inches; W. 47 inches. 

(The identity of the lady is not absolutely e^ablished. Romney's 
Ledger, under No. 33, Lady Bell Cunninghame, regi^ers two 
whole-lengths and one half4ength of the lady. (See Humphrey 
Ward and W. Roberts' ^'Romney," Vol. II, p. 69.) 
Colledtion CunninghamsGraham. 



106 



(^)H^IADVIHJD HO 283THUOD 



COUNTESS OF GLENCAIRN(?) 

GEORGE ROMNEY 



^^ 



LADY HAMILTON AS MADONNA 



GEORGE ROMNEY 



1 ; : 




wn 




\m 



m 




♦> 



[24] 

GEORGE ROMNEY i v 2" ^ 



THIRD EXAMPLE 



LADY HAMILTON AS MADONNA 

SMALL life size portrait, skewing little more than tke Kead. 
The body is turned away from the spedlator and the face, 
full three-quarters to the right and with the eyes looking up= 
wards, is framed in a soft and transparent drapery which 
covers the head and shoulders. 

Size: H. 17V2 inches; V/. 15 inches. 



Ill 



[25] 

JOHN HOPPNER, R. A. ^ 

English School, 1758*1810 f pi 

MRS. ARBUTHNOT 

LIFE SIZE full length portrait of a young -woman, partly 
sitting and partly kneeling, facing tKe spectator. Her right 
arm re^s upon a rock at her side and rocks and trees make a 
dark background behind her, but to the right the sky shows 
above a bit of landscape ^vith trees and a di^ant hill decora=: 
tively treated. Her face is turned full three-quarters towards 
the left and inclined with a pensive expression ; her light hair 
is dressed ^vith light silk ribbons. She wears a light lawn 
dress with a cambric fichu at the neck and a sash at the^vai^. 
In her right hand v/hich rei^s in her lap she holds some flowers. 

Size: H. 49I4 inches; W. 391/2 inches. 

Wm. McKay and W. Roberts' ''John Hoppncr," p. 5. 

Collection Sir Henry Hawley. 



112 



^•/ 



)M 



MRS. ARBUTHNOT 

JOHN HOPPNER, R. A. ' 



THE SLUICE 

JOHN CONSTABLE 



[26] 

JOHN CONSTABLE 

English School, i'jj(:>fiS'^j 'T^ ■ 

THE SLUICE 

NEAR tKe center of tKe composition a torrent of water 
comes foaming do\vn an old sluice, and rushes into a little 
canal to the rigKt and outside the pidlure. The sluice is con* 
i^ructed of brick walls reinforced by rough hewn timbers, 
and spanned by a ru^ic bridge. The point of vision is fi?om 
below, and seen in sharp perspedtive along the sky line are : 
at the left, the head and back of a white horse, the heads of a 
man and woman, and a column of smoke. In the center are a 
group of trees and flowering shrubs, and at the right a man 
holding a i^afFis leaning again:^ the extended fence^rail of the 
bridge. Among wild flowers and grasses, in the pidluresque 
foreground, are the beams which brace the side of the canal. 
Summer sky with clouds. 

Size: H. II ^4 inches; W. 15% inches. 



c/^ 



117 



[27] 

JOHN CHROME o 

English School, 1769 s 1821 ^ X \ 

o 

THE WILLOW 

THE composition is dominated by a group of trees — a bircli 
to tke left, and, in the center, two large willows — rising 
on tKe banks of a little brook wbick almo^ fills tbe foreground. 
At tbe foot of tbe willows is a bit of fence beyond a ru^ic 
bridge. On tbe rigbt bank of tbe ^ream, a peasant on a pony 
is talking witb a peasant woman. Beyond tbem tbe di^ant 
landscape sbov/s. Tbe scene is batbed in summer sunsbine; 
tbe blue sky being almost covered witb soft wbite clouds. 

Size: 49 V2 incbes; V/. 391/2 incbes. 

Exbibited at^Vinter Exbibitionsof Old Makers at Burling* 

ton House in 1876 (No. 280 of tbe Cat.), and in 1891 (No. 33), 

-wben owned by Mr. George Holmes. 

Sale (about 1870) of tbe be^ kno-wn colledtion of pidlures of 

tbe Norw^icb Scbool, tbe Sberrington colledlion, (bougbt by 

Mr. George Holmes, from wbom it came into Mr. Borden's 

collection). 



Hi 



THE V/ILLOV/ 

JOHN CHROME 



v \,f 



T J THE CLIFFS AT DOVER 

JOSEPH MALLORD V/ILLIAM TURNER, R. A. 



d 

i 




A .a. ,^3TiaUT MAI I 




I 




[28] 

JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM 



TURNER, R. A. ^L^'^ 



English School, 1775^1851 

THE CLIFFS AT DOVER 

UNDER a dramatic sky, wKere big sunlit clouds contra^ing 
witK a very dark cloud to the left, allow only a glimpse of 
tke blue to show at the zenith, a rough sea full of motion is seen 
in alternate patches of sunlight and shado-w. In the background 
lying between its high chalky headlands is the harbour and 
to^vn o£ Dover. Tossed on the waves in the foreground a boat 
is being rowed towards a small sailboat, heading landv/ard, on 
which a couple of sailors are ^vatching its approach. 

Signed on the ^ern of the row boat: J. M.^V. Turner. 
Size: H. 171/2 inches; W^. 24 inches. 



123 



THE REGATTA BEARING TO WINDWARD 

JOSEPH MALLORD 'WILLIAM TURNER, R. A. 



K 



c 



RUSTIC SCENE '" 



GEORGE MORLAND 



[30] 

GEORGE MORLAND n,Lu'^ 

English School, 1763 = 1804 

RUSTIC SCENE 

OCCUPYING tke center of the pidture in tke foreground 
a sow is lying dov/n with Ker two young ones again^ a 
keap of manure and ^raw, wKere, towards tke rigkt, a pig is 
searcking for food. Bekind it a farm kand, a youtk, kis kands 
crossed and reding on tke kandle of kis skovel, faces forward 
and smiles at a ^vkite dog wko percked on tke top of tke pile 
looks at kim in an expedlant attitude. At kis left a donkey seen 
in profile quietly ^ands ; at kis rigkt is a low tkatckedsroof 
^able witk its door opened ; bekind kim are buskes ; at tke ex* 
treme rigkt a bit of country is seen. Soft summer sky Avitk a 
big filmy grey cloud. 

Signed at bottom towards tke left: G. Morland 1792. 
Size: H. 191/2 inckes; W. 25^/2 inckes. 
Has been engraved in mez-zotint. 



[29 



[31] 

PATRICK NASMYTH 

English School, 1787^1831 j j U 

EDINBURGH FROM GOGAR 

A SUMMER LANDSCAPE witK a rare sense of space. 
In the extreme di^ance and almo^ in tKe center of tKe 
picture, tKe Kigh ca^le of EdinburgK looms up as an apparis 
tion again^ a sky flooded w^itK ligKt, and at its feet lies tKe city, 
its jumble of buildings seen beyond groves o{ trees. All tKis 
lies beyond tKe middle distance, tKe lines of tKe composition 
lead up towards it, wKile tKe darker and larger masses of trees 
landing to rigKt and left on tKe banks of tKe Gogar and tKeir 
accompanying reflections in tKe water empKasize tKe sKim? 
mering atmospKeric beauty of tKis background. TKe presence 
of tKe Gogar is firi^ revealed by a ^one bridge to tKe rigKt; tKe 
river appears near it in tKe center and cKanging direction 
twice swiftly flows tow^ards tKe foreground to tKe left, ex? 
panding so as to fill tKe v/Kole widtK of tKe pidlure. A bit o£ 
low sKore in tKe foreground to tKe rigKt sKo^vs grasses and 
reeds, and tKe beginning of a brick garden wall; on tKe oppo^ 
site bank to tKe left, ^vKicK is in ^rong sKadow, are some farm 
buildings under tall trees and figures of tKree women. 

Size: H. II incKes; W. 15^2 incKes. 
Colledtion F. V/KiteKead (Leamington). 



130 



V 



*n^g^i 



5 




HTYMEAK :X3I5lTAq 




EDINBURGH FROM GOGAR 

PATRICK NASMYTH 



THE PET BIRD 

SIR JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, P. R. A. 



n 



[32] 

SIR JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS, P. R. A. 

English School, 1829^1896 

THE PET BIRD ^ 

FACING towards tKe left, a little girl, nearly life size and 
tkreesquarters length, ^ands with Ker head turned for? 
ward, Ker eyes looking ^aigKt at the spectator. A lace bonnet 
is placed upon her light brown hair, which is banged across 
the forehead and loose and wavy at the back. She holds on the 
forefinger of her right hand a green parakeet, and her left arm 
hangs at her side. Her rich silk dress is embroidered with a 
Wge all-over pattern in delicate colors — hght salmonspink, 
v/hite and cool greys blending harmoniously, and has a beau^ 
tiful lace band edging the opening at the neck, and lace cuffs. 
The dark background, representing a tape^ry with trees and 
fohage, emphasizes the brilliant colouring of the figure. 

Signed at the lower left corner with monogram and ''1883." 
Size: H. 36 inches; W^. 25 ^4 inches. 



135 



[33] 

SIR LAURENZ ALMA TADEMA, R. A. 

English School, 1836= 

UNWELCOME CONFIDENCE ^^ 

IN tKe loggia of a Roman villa two young women facing tKe 
spedtator are seated on tKe fleecy fixr tKrown over a marble 
bencK; tbeir feet are reding upon a tiger skin lying on tbe 
marble floor, and, to tbeir rigbt, a ricKly chased silver vase 
filled witK lilacs ^ands on a large coffer "covered w^itK a taps 
e^ry. Bebind tbem, partly framed witb tbe beginning of an 
arcb to tbe left, is tbe sunsbiny background of sea and sky 
again^ v^bicb tbeir beads ^and out in ^rong relief, and wbere 
a fruit tree in blossom and a marble group of two figures set 
upon a large pede^al break tbe line of tbe borizon. One of tbe 
young women confides to tbe otber some secret, probably of 
tbe beart, wbicb evidently falls on reludiant ears. Tbe cos* 
tumes, one of ligbt greyisb blue, tbe otber purplish, contra^ 
and harmonize; the attitudes are graceful and expressive. The 
pidlure is fuU of light and the spirit of youth. 

Signed at bottom towards the right: L. AlmaTadeivla., opccxxxii 
Size: H. 1 7 1/2 inches; V/. 11% inches. 



[36 




m 







w. 






UNWELCOME CONFIDENCE 

SIR LAURENZ ALMA TADEMA, R. A.